Meteorología

El Servicio Meteorológico realiza la observación sistemática de amenazas relacionadas con fenómenos meteorológicos, hidrológicos, geológicos y oceanográficos. Tiene por objeto vigilar, pronosticar y alertar de los fenómenos atmosféricos y oceanográficos del país y la región; asimismo, efectúa la investigación de dichos eventos para la alerta temprana, la reducción de riesgos y la planificación ambiental territorial.

En los últimos 30 años, se ha registrado en diversas partes del mundo un número sin precedentes de fenómenos meteorológicos extremos, como inundaciones, ciclones tropicales y sequías. En los últimos diez años, se ha duplicado el número de desastres hidrometeorológicos, también la sequía y la desertificación reiteradas suponen una grave amenaza para la subsistencia de más de 1,200 millones de personas que dependen de la Tierra para atender la mayor parte de sus necesidades.

Los mayores desastres originados por fenómenos naturales en los últimos decenios están relacionados principalmente con el tiempo y el clima, y han significado cuantiosas pérdidas sociales y económicas, de ahí que sea importante realizar la vigilancia a estos fenómenos.

Las observaciones meteorológicas en el Ministerio de Medio Ambiente se efectúan las 24 horas del día, los 365 días del año, con el propósito de alertar por riesgos de lluvias fuertes, alta temperatura, temporales, huracanes, vientos rafagosos, entre otros fenómenos naturales.

La información que brinda el servicio meteorológico es utilizada especialmente por la población que habita en zonas de riesgo ambiental, les permite tomar acciones para proteger sus bienes o proceder a la autoevacuación, dadas las posibilidades de inundaciones o deslaves frente a lluvias torrenciales o eventos extremos hidrometeorológicos que impactan al país.

En total son 59 personas realizando el servicio de meteorología, distribuidas en 25 estaciones meteorológicas a nivel nacional.

La información o productos generados se divulgan a través de los medios masivos de comunicación, vía radio, prensa escrita y televisión. Además, se usa correos electrónicos, faxes, redes sociales y mensajes de texto para transmitir  la información que permite a la población conocer el comportamiento de los fenómenos naturales y tomar acciones que contribuyan a mitigar o minimizar su impacto.

Básicamente las acciones del servicio meteorológico son posibles gracias al funcionamiento de tres áreas de trabajo: el centro de pronóstico meteorológico, el centro de predicción climática y el centro de información agrometeorológica.

 

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