Informe especial 9. Finaliza sequía meteorológica débil

La sequía meteorológica duró nueve días secos consecutivos, desde su inicio el cinco de agosto y finalizó el trece de agosto de 2018.

Los lugares que registraron la falta de lluvia con nueve días secos consecutivos son los siguiente. La Unión Corsain y La Cañada en departamento de La Unión; Jucuarán en departamento de Usulután y Morolapa en departamento de San Miguel.

Asimismo, con ocho días secos consecutivos son Chirilagua, La Canoa, Vado Marín en departamento de San Miguel; Puerto Parada en departamento de Usulután; finalmente en La Hachadura registró siete días secos consecutivos, (ver mapa 1).

Mapa 1. El mapa muestra una condición en la cual todo el país presenta menos de cinco días secos consecutivos; es decir, sin sequia meteorológica.

 

Las precipitaciones acumuladas en el periodo del 10 al 20 de agosto fueron distribuidas en casi todo el país, con máximos en Santa Ana UNICAES departamento de Santa Ana y mínimos en Conchagua departamento de La Unión. De igual manera, las probabilidades para el desarrollo del fenómeno de El Niño en los próximos meses se mantienen altas y por tanto seguiremos el monitoreo de la lluvia futura a fin de evaluar las condiciones previstas que puedan derivar en eventos de sequía en los meses de la temporada de lluvias (ver mapa 2).

Mapa 2. Relativo a lluvia acumulada en 10 días actualizada al 20 de agosto 2018.

 

Durante la época de lluvia, cuando deja de llover entre cinco y 10 días consecutivos, la sequía es de intensidad débil. Si el periodo seco es de 11 a 15 días consecutivos, la sequía es moderada; y si alcanza 16 o más días es considera de intensidad fuerte o severa.

De acuerdo con las lluvias experimentadas, el territorio nacional ha logrado recuperarse y su categoría alcanza extremo o muy húmedo en la zonas de cuatro departamentos: Santa Ana, Ahuachapán, Sonsonate, Chalatenango y Cabañas.

Respecto a la condición de exceso ligero o húmedo, se observa en los departamentos mencionados; y, La Libertad, San Salvador, La Paz, Cuscatlán, San Vicente, Usulután, San Miguel y Morazán.

Mapa 3. Disponibilidad de humedad en el suelo en los últimos en 10 días.

 

En cuanto, al déficit ligero o seco, se observa en el sur de Usulután, San Miguel y La Unión.

Se prevé que, durante los próximos 10 días, el índice de humedad en el suelo se mantenga adecuado o normal en centro y oriente del país. La zona occidental será de exceso extremo o muy húmedo.

Temperaturas observadas

La temperatura máxima registrada durante este mes fue la tarde del 8 de agosto de 2018 con 40.4°C en la estación San Miguel-UES, muy por debajo del récord histórico de 42.0°C (2015).

La temperatura mínima más alta fue de 27.0°C en la estación La Unión-Corsain, la mañana del 11 de agosto. Mientras que el resto del país reportó valores inferiores.

 Lluvia acumulada

La acumulación de lluvia anual promedio, hasta el día 20 de agosto, se muestra en la siguiente gráfica:

Gráfica 1. Lluvia promedio al día 20 de agosto 2018. En la actualidad se presenta un acumulado de 979.4mm, presentando un déficit de 231.6mm con respecto al valor normal de 1211mm acumulado al finalizar agosto.

Pronóstico próximos días

Los primeros cinco días de la semana, las lluvias serán aisladas a dispersas por el paso de ondas tropicales. La lluvia caerá con énfasis en la cadena volcánica y zona norte. Con menor posibilidad de ocurrir en La Unión y alrededores de Guija. Para los subsiguientes cinco días las lluvias serán, por lo general, dispersas con énfasis en la cadena volcánica y el norte del país.

Pronóstico estacional (3 meses)

Para septiembre, se espera el 65 % de un desarrollo completo del fenómeno El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENOS). La temperatura superficial del océano Atlántico Tropical Norte se mantendrá fría. Esta combinación es desfavorable para un proceso normal de los sistemas atmosféricos que producen nubosidad y lluvias, por lo que el mes de agosto tiende a ser irregular en la acumulación de precipitación.

 

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