Evaluación del Impacto Ambiental (EIA)

La Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental (EIA), exigida en el Art. 18 de la Ley de Medio Ambiente, es el proceso que incluye el conjunto de acciones que aseguran que las actividades, obras o proyectos que puedan tener un impacto negativo en el ambiente o en la calidad de vida de la población, se sometan desde la fase de preinversión a los procedimientos que identifiquen y cuantifiquen dichos impactos y se recomienden las medidas que los prevengan, atenúen, compensen o potencien, según sea el caso, seleccionando la alternativa que mejor garantice la protección del ambiente y la sostenibilidad de la inversión.

EIA-Imagen1

En el proceso de EIA intervienen las siguientes dependencias del MARN:

a) La Dirección General de Evaluación y Cumplimiento, siendo la responsable de la administración del proceso, a través de la Gerencia de Evaluación Ambiental;

b) La Dirección General de Atención Ciudadana y Municipal, específicamente la Gerencia de Articulación Territorial y Municipal, encargada de gestionar el proceso relacionado con la Consulta Pública de los EsIA;

c) La Dirección General de Saneamiento Básico, con su Gerencia de Vertidos y la Unidad de Desechos Sólidos y Peligrosos, para las actividades, obras o proyectos relacionados a estos temas específicos.

EIA-Imagen3-200x150

Para mejorar la operatividad del proceso de EIA y agilizar los tiempos de respuesta, la Gerencia de Evaluación Ambiental se ha organizado en equipos de trabajo que atienden los diferentes sectores y actividades, obras o proyectos de inversión pública y privada. Además cuenta con la Unidad de Atención a la Ciudadanía (ventanilla), responsable de la recepción de la documentación requerida. Los sectores de trabajo son:

Etapas del proceso de EIA:

En El Salvador el proceso de Evaluación del Impacto Ambiental se realiza en cumplimiento del Artículo 19 del Reglamento General de la Ley del Medio Ambiente, que comprende cuatro etapas:

  • Planificación de la actividad, la obra o el proyecto, que debe incluir:

– Información básica del proyecto a través del Formulario Ambiental

– Términos de Referencia

– Elaboración del Estudio de Impacto Ambiental

– Consulta Pública del Estudio de Impacto Ambiental

– Análisis y evaluación del Estudio de Impacto Ambiental

– Realización de inspecciones ambientales, periódicas o aleatorias

– Dictamen técnico sobre el Estudio de Impacto Ambiental

– Resolución y presentación de la Fianza de Cumplimiento Ambiental

– Emisión del Permiso Ambiental.

 

  • La construcción de la actividad, la obra o el proyecto, comprendiendo la preparación del sitio, edificación de obra civil, equipamiento y prueba
  • El funcionamiento de la actividad, obra o proyecto
  • El cierre de operaciones y rehabilitación.

Para el inicio y operación de las actividades, obras o proyectos, el proponente de éstas, debe obtener el Permiso Ambiental, emitido por el Estado, a través del MARN, previa la aprobación del Estudio de Impacto Ambiental (EsIA).

En el proceso de EIA intervienen las siguientes dependencias del MARN:

  1. La Dirección General de Evaluación y Cumplimiento, siendo la responsable de la administración del proceso, a través de la Gerencia de Evaluación Ambiental;
  2. La Dirección General de Gobernanza Ambiental y Patrimonio Natural, específicamente la Gerencia de Atención Ciudadana y Coordinación Institucional, encargada de gestionar el proceso relacionado con la Consulta Pública de los EsIA
  3. El Despacho Ministerial, mediante la aprobación y suscripción de las Resoluciones Ministeriales derivada del referido proceso.

Para mejorar la operatividad del proceso de EIA y agilizar los tiempos de respuesta, la Gerencia de Evaluación Ambiental se ha organizado en equipos de trabajo que atienden los diferentes sectores y actividades, obras o proyectos de inversión pública y privada. Además cuenta con la Unidad de Atención a la Ciudadanía, responsable de la recepción de la documentación requerida. Los sectores de trabajo son:

1. Evaluación Ambiental Inicial
2. Agrícolas, pecuarios y agroindustriales e industriales
3. Desarrollo urbanístico, turístico y comercial del sector privado
4. Actividades, obras o proyectos derivados del Fondo del Milenio (FOMILENIO)
5. Materiales peligrosos y establecimientos de salud.
6. Obras e infraestructura pública
7. Zona marino costera.

Documentos a presentar:

     

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